May 1, 1846 - May 10, 1846
Originally known as Fort Texas, Fort Brown was a star-shaped fortification on the north bank of the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoros. The construction of the earthen-walled fort began in late March, 1846, when the Army of Occupation arrived at the mouth of the Rio Grande. In response, General Mariano Arista, commander of the Mexican Army of the North, began work constructing gun batteries in Matamoros.
On May 1, General Zachary Taylor withdrew the bulk of his army from Matamoros to protect the supply route from Point Isabel, leaving Major Jacob Brown in command. Two days later, General Pedro de Ampudia ordered a bombardment of the U.S. fort. During the course of the next seven days, Mexican troops on both sides of the river and gun batteries in Matamoros fired on the fort, killing two and wounding thirteen. Among the fatalities was Major Brown, who was hit by an artillery shell on May 6. The siege was lifted by Zachary Taylor's army after the Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
Following the siege, the post was renamed for its fallen commanding officer.